Sources - Papers
Vol. 48, No. 1-2 1989
ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE
PART 1: HISTORICAL OVERVIEW AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIALS
Scott F. Anfinson
© 1989 Minnesota Archaeological Society
© 1989 Minnesota Archaeological Society
- Bassett's Creek
The East Side Mill District includes the eastern Minneapolis riverfront from Central Avenue to the foot of 8th Avenue SE as well as Hennepin Island and the east channel platform areas (Figures 44 and 45). Commercial milling in Minneapolis began on the east side. Franklin Steele built a dam across the east channel at the south end of Nicollet Island in 1848 and erected a sawmill near the eastern end of a platform above the dam. In 1849, two more sawmills were added and a fourth sawmill added in 1850. In 1851, Steele and Richard Rogers built a small grist mill at the east end of the dam.
The focus of east side waterpower development shifted to Hennepin Island in the mid-1850s. The Minnesota Flour Mill in 1854, the River Flour Mill and the Farnham and Lovejoy Sawmill in 1856, and the Chase and Secombe Paper Mill in 1859 were all built in the mid-section of Hennepin Island. The construction of the Summit Mill in 1865 ended mill construction on Hennepin Island.
Along the east side of the east channel, waterpower was not initially used to drive lumber or flour mills, but to power machine shops, foundaries, and factories. The St. Anthony Ironworks, Todd and Wales Gutter Factory, Barnard Brothers Furniture Factory, and the Scott and Morgan Foundary lined the eastern riverfront by the late 1860s.
The 1870s brought rapid change to the East Side Mill District. Early in the decade many of the landmarks were destroyed. The Summit Mill collapsed into the mouth of the Eastman Tunnel. Fires destroyed the platform sawmills, the Minnesota Mill, the River Mill, the Barnard Brothers Furniture Factory, the Farnham and Lovejoy Sawmill, and the Tremont House hotel. The platform sawmills were rebuilt in the east channel opposite Hennepin Island.
Flour mill construction on the east bank began in 1864 with the installation of the St. Anthony Mill in the Barnard Brothers Furniture Factory. The North Star, Tower, and Phoenix flour mills were built along Main Street in the 1870s. The completion of the mammoth Pillsbury A mill in 1881 both climaxed and ended major flour mill construction on the east side.
Hydroelectricity entered the East Side Mill District in the 1880s when a generator was installed in the Pillbury A Mill. In 1894, Minneapolis General Electric built a generating plant at the site of the second platform sawmills which had burned in 1887. The GE Plant burned in 1911, but was quickly replaced with the Main Street Power Plant in the same location. In 1897, the Lower Dam Hydroelectric Plant was finished and in 1908 a hydroelectric plant was built in the center of Hennepin Island.
Within the East Side Mill District, the major commercial district for the east side grew up along Main Street. Initially known as Lower Town, business construction was focused between 2nd and 4th Avenues SE. Many of the merchants began to abandon the area in the 1870s following the consolidation of east side St. Anthony with west side Minneapolis.
Today, only the Pillsbury A Mill and the hydropower facilities of Hennepin Island remain as surface reminders of the east side's waterpower heritage. Several rehabil-itated commercial buildings (e.g., the Upton Block, Pracna) and factories (St. Anthony Main) still line Main Street.
In 1848 Franklin Steel finished a dam across the east channel of the Mississippi River connecting the east bank, the north end of Hennepin Island, and the south end of Nicollet Island. It was built of oak and elm from Nicollet Island and had room for sixteen turbine openings. The dam was damaged by high water in 1851 and subsequently raised two feet.
In 1856 the east channel dam was linked to the main channel dam. The old east channel segment was removed in 1870 after the sawmill platform burned and was rebuilt further downstream. Some lower segments of the dam may remain buried in riverbank fill or river silt.
References: Chapman and Curtis (1856); SAF Express (9/1/55, 10/27/55); Kane (1987:18); Atwater (1893:527, 529, 536).
In 1851 Richard Rogers and Franklin Steele put a portable grist mill at the east end of the east dam. The following year, a more permanent mill was erected with two run of stone. In 1855 it was sold to Simon and Seymour. The mill burned in 1857. Some foundations of the mill and east end of the dam may remain under riverbank fill.
References: Warner et al. (1881:330); NW Miller (8/22/79, 8/29/79); Shutter (1923:350); SAF Express (10/27/55); Kane (1987:27, 192); Atwater (1893:576); Greenleaf (1887:166).
Following the completion of the east channel dam in 1848, a single sawmill was placed on a wooden platform over the river at the east end of the dam. A year later two more sawmills were built over the east side of the dam, and in 1850 a sawmill was built over the west end. These five sawmills had various improvements over the next twenty years, but no new sawmills were built. The sawmills were destroyed by fire in 1870. Some pilings may remain buried in the river mud.
References: Atwater (1893:537); Kane (1987:18,19,25,26,58); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (1895:72); Greenleaf (1887:165, 171).
In 1878 T.G. Salisbury established a mattress factory at the foot of 1st (Central) Avenue SE. The building was a small, stone, one-story structure powered by a long line shaft from the Union Iron Works turbine. The company expanded rapidly in the early 1880s, adding several new portions and several new buildings along Main Street. In 1885 the original factory is listed as a "Picker House." By 1890 the building was gone. Any remains were probably destroyed by the construction of the 3rd Avenue bridge in 1917.
References: Greenleaf (1887:50); Hudson (1908:387); Warner et al. (1881:416).
In the early 1860s Todd, Fales, and Company built an eave and gutter factory on the east bank of the river just below the foot of 1st Avenue SE. (Central Avenue). It was a large wooden structure powered by a line shaft from the Union Iron Works turbine near the east channel dam. Nudd and Knight took over the building in the 1870s. The structure burned in 1882. Some foundations may remain under riverbank fill.
References: Greenleaf (1887); Atwater (1893:659); Warner et al. (1881:416); Farquahar (1878).
In the mid-1870s, two or three abutting stone buildings were erected on the west side of Main Street between 1st and 2nd Avenues. These buildings were one-story high and water-powered by a line shaft from the Union Iron Works turbine. For the first 10 years, the building held a variety of tenants including Nelson and Hernland Machine Shop, Perkins Machine Shop, and North Branch Shingle Machines. By 1885 Salisbury, Coots and Ralph Mattress Company had taken over the buildings using them as blacksmith and woodworking shops. The buildings were vacant in 1890 and gone by 1892. Some foundations may remain beneath fill.
References: Greenleaf (1887); Atwater (1893:642); Warner et al. (1881:409-410); City Directory (1880); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90).
The Pillsbury Power Canal was started in 1880 and finished in 1881. The canal ran from the foot of 2nd Avenue SE along Main Street to the Pillsbury A Mill at 3rd Avenue SE. Unlike the west side canal, it had an arched masonry roof over which fill was placed and then cobblestone for the street. The canal was 14 feet wide and a maximum of 15 feet deep. Two tailraces from the Pillsbury A Mill ran diagonally under Main Street entering a short channel along the river. In 1901 the southern tailrace was rebuilt. In 1955 the Pillsbury A discontinued the use of waterpower. The canal was blocked off and the tailraces are now used as storm sewers. The entrance of the canal into the Pillsbury A Mill was exposed in 1990 when the loading dock was replaced.
References: Kane (1987:123); NW Miller (2/18/81); Greenleaf (1887).
The Tower Mill was built by P. Herzog in 1871 to serve as a means of transmitting power to the Northwestern Fence Works. The Tower Mill was on the west side of Main Street just south of the foot of 3rd Avenue SE. It was a wooden tower with a large wheel at the top which turned a rope drive connected with the fence works a block up 3rd Avenue. Surplus power was used to turn one millstone within the tower which produced grist and feed. The waterpower turbine was located behind the platform mills and a line shaft went to the Tower Mill. The building was torn down in 1891. No foundations are surficially apparent in the small park now occupying the site.
References: Warner et al. (1881:398); Greenleaf (1887:172).
In 1853, O. Rogers built a four-story, wooden machine shop at the east end of St. Anthony Falls fronting on Main Street between 3rd and 4th Avenues SE. The building was water-powered and in 1855 had a planing mill on the first floor, a sash, door, and blind factory on the second floor and a furniture factory on the third and fourth floors. In 1859 Barnard Brothers Furniture Company bought the building and made high quality furniture that was locally popular. In 1864 Stamwitz and Schober leased the lower level for the St. Anthony Flour Mill. The building burned in 1871. Construction of the Pillsbury tailraces in 1881 probably destroyed most foundation remnants. Parkland now occupies the site.
References: SAF Express (10/27/55); Shutter (1923:377-378); Hudson (1908:385); Kane (1987:111, 185, 202); NW Miller (8/22/79); Warner et al. (1881:390); Atwater (1893:586, 634, 635, 637, 640, 750); SAF Water Power Co. Map (1869); Mpls. Tribune (5/10/1872).
In 1856 Scott and Morgan built a foundry just below St. Anthony Falls on Main Street between 3rd and 4th Avenues SE. It was a frame structure, two stories in front, and four stories in back. In 1861 Morgan joined the Union Army and the foundry shut down. It burned in 1863 but was rebuilt by E.B. Ames in 1865. Wheaton and Reynolds had a sash, door, and blind factory there in the late 1860s which was taken over by S. Maclean in 1869. The building burned in 1871. Construction of the Pillsbury tailraces in 1881 and 1901 probably destroyed most foundation remnants. The site area today is in parkland.
References: Atwater (1893:643); Shutter (1923:379, 383); Hudson (1908:367, 386); City Directories (1867-1874).
The Chalybeate Springs were natural springs which flowed out of rock fissures at the base of the bluff between 4th and 5th Avenues SE. In 1875, M.P. Pettingill built a restaurant, dock, and wooden walkway at Chalybeate Springs where he sold the water as a health promotion, gave boat rides into the nearby Chute tunnel, and provided visitors with a water-level view of St. Anthony Falls. The site was partially destroyed by the Pillsbury tailraces in 1881. Pettingill abandoned the resort in the early 1880s after the spring water was no longer popular. Flowing springs still are visible in the area, but all surficial traces of the resort have vanished. Some buried foundations and occupation debris may exist.
References: Hopkins (1885); NW Miller (2/18/81); Warner et al. (1881:388); Bromley (1890); Kane (1987:86).
In 1864 S.H. Chute excavated a tunnel beginning at the base of the bluff between 4th and 5th Avenues SE, proceeding to Main Street in a perpendicular line, and then under Main Street towards St. Anthony Falls. The 8-foot diameter tunnel encountered a large cave between 3rd and 4th Avenues and was abandoned. In 1875 a bulkhead was built across the tunnel during tailrace excavations for the Phoenix Mill. The Chute tunnel was used for tourist excursions from 1875 to 1883. In 1881 a portion of the tunnel opposite the North Star Mill collapsed and took part of Main Street with it.
The tunnel was more effectively sealed during the Pillsbury canal construction in 1881. It still remains below Main Street, but the entrance is no longer apparent. In the spring of 1990, Greg Brick, a local caver, entered the cave from the Pillsbury tailrace finding most of the natural cave collapsed, but the tunnel in fairly good shape.
References: NW Miller (8/29/79); Kane (1987:86); Warner et al. (1881:388); Greenleaf (1887:172); Brick (1990).
Shortly after the completion of the stone arch bridge in 1883, a small railroad depot was built on the east side between the foot of 6th and 7th Avenues SE. It was a one-story, brick structure with a ticket office, women's waiting room, and a men's waiting room. It was torn down in the early twentieth century. Some foundations may remain beneath the parkland that now occupies the site.
References: Hopkins (1885); Rascher (1892/06); SAF Waterpower Co. (1895); City Directory (1892-93).
In 1856 a small, three-story, frame hotel was built at the corner of 2nd Avenue SE and Main Street. Initially called the Jarrett House, the name was changed to the Tremont House in 1858 and a fourth story was added. By the early 1870s, it was the only hotel on the east side until it burned in 1873. The construction of the Salisbury and Satterlee "E" Building (now part of St. Anthony Main) in 1909 probably destroyed all earlier foundation remains.
References: Bromley (1890); Cook (1872).
In 1875 Stamwitz and and Schober built the water-powered, 4-story, stone Phoenix Flour Mill at the intersection of Main Street and 3rd Avenue SE. In 1895 the mill was extensively remodeled which included the addition of a fifth story. In 1916 it was converted into a rye mill. It was torn down in 1956. Foundations no doubt exist below the parking lot that currently occupies the site.
References: Atwater (1893: 608, 614); Warner et al. (1881:397); NW Miller (12/5/76, 8/30/95, 10/8/16, 11/15/16, 3/5/19); SAFR (1980:95).
In 1872 P. Herzog built the Northwestern Fence Factory at 3rd Avenue SE and 2nd Street. It was a large, 2-story, frame building which included a foundry, a blacksmith shop, and a machine shop. It was powered by an overhead wire rope from the Tower Mill at the foot of SE 3rd Avenue. In 1890 the factory moved to a new location and the building was abandoned. It was torn down about 1900 and the subsequent construction of the Pillsbury machine shop probably destroyed any foundation remnants.
References: Warner et al. (1881:409); Atwater (1893:647); Greenleaf (1887:172); Kane (1987:111, 202); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (3/20/77); Mpls. Journal (11/10/72); Andreas (1874).
In 1855 D. Edwards built a three-story, brick building on SE Main Street between 3rd and 4th Avenues. It initially contained a variety of commercial establishments including Andrews Brothers Dry Goods. In 1866 the North Star Iron Works took over the building remaining there for two years. In 1870 the North Star Flour Mill remodled the building and installed four runs of milling stones. The building burned in 1883 and Pillsbury built a brick elevator on the site. In 1916 the South Pillsbury A Mill was constructed there. Some foundations of the North Star Mill may have been reused by the later buildings.
References: SAF Express (9/1/55); Kane (1987:108); City Directory (1867, 1873/74); Warner et al. (1881:406); Atwater (1893:591, 644, 645, 809); NW Miller (1/12/83, 1/19/83).
About 1880, five adjoining two and three-story, brick and stone buildings were built on SE Main Street between 4th and 5th Avenues. They initially housed several stores. In 1892 Andersch Brothers took over the buildings for the Northwest Hide and Fur Company. In the early twentieth century, a three-story, brick addition was added to the rear of the buildings. In the 1940s Pillsbury took over the complex for their Warehouse No. 5. The buildings were torn down about 1960, but foundations probably remain beneath a parking lot.
References: Greenleaf (1887); Sanborn (1912/51).
In the mid-1850s, W. Spooner built several adjoining multi-story, frame buildings on SE Main Street between 4th and 5th Avenues. The buildings housed a number of businesses and were known as Spooner's Row. The buildings were torn down in the early 1880s and the site remained vacant until Pillsbury built Warehouse #3 on the site in the early 1920s. Archaeological potentials are dependent on the extent of the original foundations and subsequent warehouse construction.
References: Greenleaf (1887); Bromley (1890); Kane and Ominsky (1983:41).
By the mid-1860s, good building lots near St. Anthony Falls were getting too expensive for some immigrants to purchase so they settled along the flood-prone lower terraces on either side of the river below the Falls. The west side flats became known as Bohemian Flats while the less reknown ones on the east were called the East Side Flats. Most of the dwellings were small, one-story frame structures with attached sheds. Much of the northern half of the East Side Flats was destroyed by the construction of the Lower Dam and Hydropower Station in 1895 and the Rapid Transit Steam Power Plant in 1903. The remainder on the south end was torn down over the next fifty years. Some foundation remnants and occupational debris probably exist in undeveloped land at the south end of the site.
References: Hopkins (1885); Foote (1892); Gjerde (1983:262, 266); Svenska Amerikanska Posten (5/21/95); Mpls. Tribune (10/1890).
The rapids below St. Anthony Falls remained undeveloped until the late nineteenth century when the Pillsbury-Washburn Company announced plans to build a dam and powerstation. William de la Barre was the engineer for the project which began in May of 1895 and finished construction in December of 1897 at a cost of one million dollars.
The Lower Hydrostation formed the eastern end of the Lower Dam. The power potential was rated at 10,000 horsepower with a fall of about 20 feet. The powerhouse was built on a concrete base laid on the sandstone bedrock. Under the turbine roomwere 10 arched stone tailraces. The superstructure was built of a steel framework and masonry walls of salt-glazed tile. It contained one large room 250' x 50'. Most of the power was used by the Twin Cities Rapid Transit Company for streetcars. When NSP took over the plant in 1950, it removed the old turbines and generators and placed 10 new generators on the building's northern exterior directly above the headraces. The building interior was left essentially vacant.
On November 9, 1987 the west end of the powerhouse was undercut by the river and the building partially collapsed. Most of the building was torn down in December of 1987 with the remaining part of the structure removed in late 1988. Only the forebay retaining wall and the buildings foundations still survive. The building foundations will be destroyed by the new powerhouse that NSP proposes to built on the site.
References: Gjerde (1983:261-273, 281); Kane (1987:153-157).
In order to prevent the undermining of St. Anthony Falls, the Army Corps of Engineers in 1874 began constructing a concrete dike several hundred feet above the Falls. A vertical access shaft was first excavated at the northeast edge of Hennepin Island. A waterpower turbine at the west edge of the island powered the pumps and shaft lift. A wooden house was built over the shaft. On either side of the shaft, tunnels 40 feet high were excavated beneath the limestone to both sides of the river. These tunnels were then filled with concrete. The project was completed in late 1876. The shaft house was torn down in 1891. A covered access to the shaft is still visible, although NSP is considering filling the shaft with concrete in order to prevent it from being overtopped by high water thus creating a potential for a disaster similar to the Eastman Tunnel collapse.
References: Farquahar (1883); Hopkins (1885).
In 1855 the St. Anthony Falls Water Power Company built a boarding house for its mill hands on upper Hennepin Island. It was a two-story, frame structure with a gable roof. It was torn down in about l865. The area is currently a small park. Some foundations may remain.
References: SAF Express 5/9/55; Bromley (1890).
In 1859 Chase and Secombe built a three-story, frame papermill on the east side of upper Hennepin Island. In 1866 the paper mill moved into a stone building on lower Hennepin Island. The original paper mill building was torn down in 1874 for the construction of the government dike access. Foundations may remain under parkland.
References: Bromley (1890); Warner et al. (1881:414); Atwater (1893:657).
Following the destruction of the First East Side Platform mills in 1870, a new east channel dam was built two blocks downstream. Two sawmills were immediately built on a platform over the east end of the dam. In 1873 two more sawmills were added and a fifth was built in 1877. In 1877 the westernmost sawmill burned, but it was rebuilt the following year. The Island Power drive tower was built at the west end of the platform in 1879.
All the sawmills burned in 1887. Only the mill second from the west end was rebuilt and it burned again in 1892 but was again rebuilt. It closed in 1903 and was torn down in 1911. The Island Power drive tower was torn down about 1930. The sites of the three easternmost sawmills were taken over by the Minneapolis General Electric hydro plant in 1894, a location now occupied by the Main Street hydro plant.
Some foundations of the three westernmost sites may remain in a transformer yard. All of the tailrace tunnels are probably still in place.
References: Atwater (1893:556, 557, 560, 561, 564); Warner et al. (1881:402-403); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (1895:74-75); Kane (1987:106); Shutter (1923:342); Mpls. Journal (2/4/93).
In 1894-95 Minneapolis General Electric built a one and one-half story, brick building on the sites of the easternmost three platform sawmills. It housed hydro-powered generators moved from the steam-powered West Side Power Plant. In 1904 a brick steam-power plant was built immediately behind the original building. The generating plant burned in 1911 and the current Main Street Power Plant was built on the site. The adjacent steam power plant did not burn in 1911, but it was converted into a warehouse which was torn down in the late 1930s. Some foundations of the steam plant may remain in a transformer yard.
References: SAFR (1980:103); Kane (1987:151); Meyer (1954).
In 1903 Pillsbury built a steam-powered electric generating plant extending from the east bank into the east channel directly across Main Street from the Pillsbury A Mill. It was a one and one-half story, brick structure with a 150 foot high brick chimney. It provided supplemental power to the A mill. It was torn down in the late 1960s. Some foundation remnants can still be seen in the park that now occupies the site.
References: Minneapolis Real Estate Atlas (1903); Sanborn (1912).
In 1856 E. Broad built a one-story, stone building near the east edge of the center of Hennepin Island. Here he manufactured cant hooks and other log handling tools. Broad sold the building in the 1870s and it then housed a blacksmith shop into the early 1900s. It was a warehouse for many years before it was torn down in 1938 to make room for an access road to the new University of Minnesota hydraulic laboratory. Some foundations may remain beneath the access road.
References: Shutter (1923:379); Warner et al. (1881:411); Atwater (1893:643).
In 1856 Prescott and Morrison built the River Flour Mill on Hennepin Island at the west end of the east channel falls. It was a three-story, frame structure. The name was changed to the Farmers Mill in 1870 when Lawrence and Campbell bought the mill. At various times the mill also housed a planing mill, a carding-spinning works, and part of the Northwestern Fence Works. In 1872 a fire, which began in the adjacent Ross Planing Mill, spread to the Farmers Mill and it burned down. Some foundation remnants may exist below twentieth century fill.
References: Warner et al. (1881:390,409); Atwater (1893:578,608,640,654); City Directory (1867); NW Miller Holiday Issue (1890).
In about 1878 Perry Brothers and Company built a one-story, frame building on lower Hennepin Island east of the Farnham and Lovejoy Sawmill. Here they manufactured printers' cabinets until 1889. It was used as a storage shed until about 1895 when it was torn down. Some foundation remnants may exist below an NSP parking area.
References: City Directories (1882/83, 1888/89); Sanborn (1885).
In 1854 Rollins, Eastman and Upton built a frame flour mill on the east side of lower Hennepin Island which they called the Minnesota Mill. It was two and one-half stories high with a stone basement. The mill was improved in 1863 and renamed the Island Mill. A grainery attached to the south side of the mill was destroyed in the 1870 Eastman tunnel collapse. The building burned in 1872. Some foundations probably remain below modern fill.
References: SAF Water Power Co. (1869); Warner et al. (1881:390); Atwater (1893):577).
In the mid-1860s, Moulton and Bowles built a small frame planing mill on the east side of lower Hennepin Island just below the Minnesota Mill. It was destroyed by the 1870 Eastman Tunnel collapse.
References: City Directory (1871/72, 1873/74); Warner et al. (1881:404).
In 1865 Kasube and Company built the Washington Flour Mill on the east side of lower Hennepin Island. It was a two and one-half story, frame building and was water powered. The name was changed to the Summit Mill in the late 1860s. The mill was destroyed by the 1870 Eastman tunnel collapse. Some peripheral foundations may survive under modern fill.
References: Atwater (1893:586); Warner et al. (1881:390).
In 1878 McMillan and Company built a tannery near the southeast end of Hennepin Island. The frame tannery consisted of a three-story building, a two-story building, and several small one-story buildings, all of which were attached. In the early twentieth century, Bolles and Rodgers ran the tannery. It was torn down in 1918. Some foundations may remain below modern fill.
References: Sanborn (1885, 1912); City Directories.
Waterworks, west side of middle Hennepin Island (1857-1938)
In 1857 Rogers, Stimpson and Kent built a three-story, stone building on the west side of Hennepin Island. Originally intended as a sash, door, and blind factory, the firm failed in 1858, and in 1866 the building was taken over for a paper mill by Cutter and Secombe. In the 1870s it was used as a pulp mill until it burned in 1880.
In 1882 the city bought the shell of the building and rebuilt the interior into a waterworks. The waterworks was abandoned in 1903 and the building was torn down in 1938 for the construction of the University of Minnesota hydraulic laboratory. Some of the old foundations were reused.
References: Kane (1987:111,123); Atwater (1893:657); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (1895:74); Mpls. Tribune (2/11/20, 3/6/1978); Warner et al. (1881:368).
In 1856 Rogers, Stimpson and Kent built a wooden sawmill on the west side of Hennepin Island adjacent to their stone factory. It was a large, two and one-half story, frame structure. Silas Farnham bought the mill in 1860 and J.A. Lovejoy became a partner in the water-powered mill in 1861. The building burned in 1873 and was rebuilt in 1874. In 1888 the machinery was removed from the building and it was torn down in 1892. The foundations were destroyed in 1897 for the construction of Wasteway #2.
References: Atwater (1893:638,554); Kane (1987:84-85); Warner et al. (1881:368,402); Shutter (1923:335).
In 1855, King, Loring, and Lovejoy built a shingle mill at the north end of Cataract Island. It was a one-story, frame structure. J.A. Lovejoy was sole owner when it was destroyed by high water in 1860. Cataract Island is now submereged. It is southeast of Hennepin Island just downstream of the stone arch bridge. Some foundations may remain below modern fill.
References: SAF Express 10/27/55); Atwater (1893:538); Shutter (1923:335).
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