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The Itasca Bison Kill Site  
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The Itasca Bison Kill site is located near Lake Itasca in Clearwater County.



                   


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Location of the Itasca Bison Kill site.



 

 

                   


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View of the Itasca Bison Kill site.



                   


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Main trench looking east from the base of the western slope, 1964.



 

 

                   


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Horns and skull of Bison Occidentalis (lower), recovered from the bed of Nicollet Creek.



                   


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The Itasca Bison Kill site.



 

 
                   


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Bog excavations at the Itasca Bison Kill site.



                   


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Hill excavations at the Itasca Bison Kill site.



 

 

                   


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Transverse and longitudinal profiles of Nicollet Valley.



                   


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Transverse profiles of Nicollet Valley.



 
 
                   


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Longitudinal profiles of Nicollet Valley.



 
 
                   


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Cores, bifaces, and projectile points from the bog and hill excavations.



 
 
                   


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Large tools from the hill excavations. The lines enclose a worn area on the tool.



 
 
                   


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Large tool (A) and hammerstone (B) from the hill excavations. The lines enclose a worn area on the tool.



                   


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Knives from the Itasca Bison Kill site excavations. (D) and (G) were recovered from the hill, while the other knives were found during the bog excavations.



                   


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(A) and (C) are choppers from the bog and (B) is a chopper recovered from the hill.



 
 
                   


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Nicollet Valley, view to the north.



                   


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Nicollet Valley, view to the south.



 
 
                   


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Backhoe removing upper peat layer from the main trench, 1964.



                   


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Main trench, view to the east from the base of the western slope, 1964.



 
 
                   


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Main trench, view to the west, 1964. The terrace marks the top of the sandy copropelic marl.



                   


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Main trench, view to the east from the base of the western slope, 1965.



 
 
                   


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Profile of the west face of the transverse trench in the west end of the main trench.



                   


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Profile of the east face of the transverse trench in the west end of the main trench.



 
 
                   


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Knife found associated with small bone fragments in the west end of the main trench.



                   


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Fragmented bison skull found in the west end of the main trench. Pollen evidence indicates that the skull has been redeposited from older sediments.



 
 
                   


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Bison pelvis and sacrum from the north-south portion of the main trench. Wood below the bone concentration yielded C-14 dates ranging from 9690 to 8580 B.P.



                   


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Bone concentration at the west end of the main trench.



 
 
                   


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Bone concentration from the Trench No.2, in the center of the valley, 1964. Remains included horn, cores, mandibles, and ribs.



                   


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Base of a side-notched projectile point excavated near the eastern margin of the valley, 1964.



 
 
                   


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Partial dog cranium excavated from the eastern margin of the valley, 1964.



                   


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Triangular side-notched point.



 
 
                   


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Frontal view of a bison skull recovered in 1937.



                   


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Abraded and mineralized bone fragments. Natural processes, including the weather and the organic material in the soil, can change the appearance and texture of bone.



 
 
                   


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Cut bison scapula from the bone concentration in the west end of the main trench.



                   


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Excavations of the hill, view to the southwest.



 
 
                   


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Excavation unit on the hill. An anvil stone (foreground), large tool, and base of a corner-notched point were recovered from the unit.



                   


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Bifacial artifact (e) and projectile point and fragments.



 
 
                   


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Triangular side-notched points.



                   


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Side and corner-notched point bases.



 
 


 

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Updated 24 June 1999